The Australian connection fashioned the opening goal for Leeds on 21 minutes.
Harry Kewell received a return pass from Viduka and cut in from the right, and although American keeper Brad Friedel got his right hand to the ball he could only parry it and Viduka headed in from a few yards out.
The lead lasted just 17 minutes until Leeds defender Michael Duberry, who kept his place despite Lucas Radebe's fitness, handled David Dunn's corner from the right and Dunn coolly slotted the penalty low to Paul Robinson's left to put Rovers level.
Kewell threatened to restore Leeds' advantage with a powerful left-foot shot that Friedel did well to claw the ball away for a corner.
Andy Cole was repeatedly booed for his Manchester United connection and was given the full treatment by Leeds fans when he fluffed a first-half chance by shooting high into the crowd when well placed.
However, Cole was effective in dropping deep to mastermind many of Rovers' most effective attacks.
Kewell and Viduka posed the greatest threat to Rovers' defence and they almost produced another goal on 59 minutes.
Kewell lifted the ball forward for Danny Mills to charge down the right and from the England right back's low cross, Viduka back-heeled the ball just wide.
Rovers took the lead, however, in the 68th minute when Cole set off on a determined run into the penalty box, shrugging off Dominic Matteo's challenge.
Robinson couldn't hold the shot and Cole followed up to bundle the ball over the line.
Then Leeds' defence was exposed again, allowing Duff's 78th minute corner to reach substitute Andy Todd beyond the far post and he squeezed the ball home.
Alan Smith, playing his final game of the season before a two-match ban, managed to nod Robinson's long kick past Friedel in the last minute but it was too late to rescue Leeds from defeat.