Dobie, 33, has been without a club since the end of the 2010/11 season when he left St Johnstone.
Taylor, 18, made four appearances for Leeds in the 2011/12 campaign.
Former Leeds centre-half Carlisle told BBC Radio York: "At the end of last season I had contemplated hanging up my boots so I hadn't really entertained any offers.
"I changed my mind and put it out there that I would be available and I'm absolutely delighted that the manager called me.
"There's no better time to join a team than when they're on the way up."
Carlisle has agreed a short-term deal with the Minstermen until January, while Dobie has signed a three-month contract.