The Whites will head to the Emirates Stadium for a tough test against the Gunners.
The fourth-round tie will be played either Tuesday October 25 or Wednesday October 26, with the match coming between Premier League fixtures at home to Wolverhampton Wanderers and away at Norwich City.
Arsenal eased to a comfortable 3-nil victory over League 1 side AFC Wimbledon on Wednesday, while Leeds edged to a 6-5 penalty shootout win over Championship side Fulham on Tuesday night in the third round.
Carabao Cup fourth-round draw
Chelsea vs. Southampton
Arsenal vs. Leeds United
Stoke City vs. Brentford
West Ham vs. Manchester City
Leicester City vs. Brighton and Hove Albion
Burnley vs. Tottenham Hotspur
Queens Park Rangers vs. Sunderland Athletic
Preston North End vs. Liverpool